OHBM2019 in Rome


What a special time in Rome we had over the June 9-13 period for the Organization for Human Brain Mapping [OHBM] annual scientific meeting! This one was the 25th anniversary of the meeting & was my last year [of a 3 year stint] on the Program Committee. For planning the meeting 3 years ago, OHBM Council originally was expecting ~3,000 people. In reality, 4100 people showed up to the meeting!!! A staggering number of people – stretching everyone & everything to the limit. So here are some selected highlights from the meeting, from my own very limited perspective – for those of you interested in travel stuff, keep reading as there is something here for you too.

The meeting was held at an interesting location – the Auditorium Parco Della Musica – a set of 3 concert halls & associated facilities. The architecture is interesting & the complex consists of 3 giant pods or beans [see picture below], which were completed in 2003. The contract was completed by Renzo Piano & Renzo Piano Building Workshop, after being approved in 1994. Invariably, construction on the project was delayed due to the discovery of archeological artifacts at the site – not surprising, it is Rome after all. For more details on the facilities, history & museums on site in the place [https://www.auditorium.com/].


The site did have a lot of stairs – for me personally, this was a good thing: since I sat so much in talks & meetings, it was a good way to get up my step count each day… My favorite part of the place? The Musa Room to be sure – with it’s large collection of musical instruments lining both sides of a long access corridor…


…which included a Stradivari from 1690 – the so-called ‘Tuscan violin’! Looked as if it had been made yesterday!


The collection of musical instruments was very beautiful & included all types – string, wind, percussion etc. It also included some interesting folk music instruments as well.

And also a musical instrument laboratory.


The OHBM opening ceremony with awards etc. was one I will never forget. It started the meeting off with usual Italian style! Four shapely divas walked on stage & sang a few popular Italian songs & then an opera aria. Their voices were divine! Our own OHBM2019 Local Organizing Committee Co-Chair Emiliano Ricciardi joined them in a wonderful display of his own operatic talent. Indeed, it was the topic of many OHBM conversations for the entire week! Here is the video that I shot that Bernard Mazoyer also ended up showing at the closing ceremony.

Back in February, we had the Program Committee meeting [in Montreal checking out the next OHBM meeting site]. At dinner after a really long day working on the program for Rome we were all very tired. Instead of the usual science banter which often happens at these organizing dinners, we ended up talking about our hobbies & interests. I was sitting opposite the Local Organizing Committee Co-Chairs – Emiliano & Pietro Pietrini. Emiliano mentioned that he sung opera & I suggested that he sing at the OHBM Welcome reception. I noticed that Pietro had an evil glint in his eye: I am not sure now if they had already cooked up the plan for Emiliano to sing at the Opening Ceremony, or whether at that point in time Pietro had that idea. Either way Emiliano’s wonderful performance is part of OHBM history! It will certainly be a hard act to follow for Alan Evans in Montreal next year…

I was really looking forward to Riitta Hari’s Talairach Lecture on Sunday night. Prior to that on the Saturday evening the 2 of us splurged on dinner at a fabulous restaurant in Rome called Mirabelle [see https://www.mirabelle.it/]. It is housed on the 7th floor of a very swish Roman hotel with a terrace that overlooks the city of Rome. It has one Michelin Star, so as you can imagine everything was spectacular… Here are some pics of us & some of the dishes we had. We washed that gorgeous food down with a top-end Sancerre from the Loire Valley. Needless to say my credit card was smoking for a couple of days after paying half the bill, but it was worth it!


Of course, the presentation on the dishes was exceptional. The image above of that green apple is deceptive: inside was a foie gras pate encased in a green apple jelly. The apple was completely soft, so I would really love to know how it was assembled. That restaurant had the type of cooking that would be impossible to duplicate in your own kitchen. I love to cook, but that is a thousand levels beyond my skill level…

The next evening, Pietro Pietrini welcomed us at the Opening Ceremony & Alan Evans was awarded the Glass Brain Award. Very well deserved to be sure – I was surprised that he had not won it earlier actually. [Next year Alan will be the Local Organizing Committee Chair for the meeting in Montreal.] The Early Career Investigator award went to Thomas Yeo – it was nice to see the congratulatory messages making their way to Thomas on social media!


And then for the main event of the evening: Riitta Hari completed her Keynote entitled: ‘Timing Matters‘. Riitta also paid tribute to the late Prof. Fernando Lopes da Silva, who died in May of this year. He was known as a giant in the EEG field & was an long-time editor of a book we all call ‘The EEG Bible‘ for short. I used it in its 2nd edition when I was a graduate student. The most recent edition came out in February 2018 [see https://oxfordmedicine.com/view/10.1093/med/9780190228484.001.0001/med-9780190228484]. Fernando was a very kind individual, as well as being a stellar scientist. My interactions with him [of which there were not many] were always wonderful. Indeed, he did Riitta & I an extreme kindness by writing a short review on our MEG-EEG Primer that we have featured on our back cover. The EEG & MEG community sorely feels the loss of this ‘Father of EEG’ – everyone was talking about this at OHBM…


During her Talairach lecture, Riitta took us on a trip back to the days of single channel MEG technology. How far the field has come since then! She then developed the idea that observed differences in MEG/EEG & fMRI signals might arise due to different biases the 2 methods might have to measure neural output produced by different fiber sizes. For example, when one looks at the diameter of callosal fibres, it is not even across the corpus callosum – average diameter varies as a function of anatomical position [Aboitiz et al., 1992], resulting in inter-hemispheric transfer times that can vary from 3-300 ms.

Despite some issues with a collapsing lectern, Riitta was unflappable & continued on as if nothing had happened… It struck me that the content of her slide at the time was somewhat ironic too.


So, the take home message of the lecture was that it is likely the MEG/EEG & fMRI see outputs from different fibers. Specifically, MEG/EEG signals more likely are biased by the neuronal ensembles that send their outputs to large fibers [fast timing], whereas the fMRI signal is more likely to arise from signals reverberating in small & medium fiber systems. So this is an interesting idea – something that was discussed afterwards in the reception & all week long during the meeting. The lecture has seeded some germs of ideas for testing over the next few years – serving its purpose well. After, the lecture we retired to the outdoors to catch up with old friends & make new ones for the outdoor reception with lovely food, drinks & entertainment Italian style!

Monday morning we were off to a wonderful start. It was my great pleasure to introduce Dani Bassett – the 1st of our keynotes for the 25th anniversary meeting. Dani’s lecture was a technological & scientific tour de force. [Indeed, who could expect her to do otherwise?] Before her keynote the two of us were chatting on stage & as we looked out onto the audience in the auditorium my photographer instinct seized me. The view was fabulous from the stage – here is our view from there. I already shared this one on social media, so apologies if you have seen it already.


And here is a selfie of us on the stage before her lecture & then me introducing the lecture [pic courtesy of Andreas Horn – thank you].


Finally, here is a pic by Franco Pestilli [thank you] from the ‘nose bleed’ section of the auditorium while Dani is giving her talk – we look like ants on that stage. A few days later I was up in the second balcony to listen to a keynote when the downstairs part was full. It is truly wonderful to look out & see so many neuroimagers – with 60% of them being trainees – graduate students & post-docs. How our field has grown in 25 years!


One of the special events this year, given our 25th anniversary, was a Symposium entitled: ‘A retrospective look back at OHBM‘ which was live streamed & I believe is now available on OHBM On Demand for our members. It was organized by Peter Bandettini & had sixteen scientists on stage who had been involved with OHBM from the first years. Here are a couple of pics of everyone on stage.

In the image on the left Peter B is at the podium. Seated [closest to camera] are Karl Zilles, Karen Berman, Susan Bookheimer, David Van Essen, Bob Turner, Alan Evans & Art Toga. In the image on the right we have [unseen] Peter Fox, me & Riitta Hari, then closest to camera is Bernard Mazoyer, Arno Villringer, Bruce Rosen, David Kennedy & Rainer Goebel. Missing from the meeting were people such as Jim Haxby, Leslie Ungerleider, Karl Friston, Kia Nobre, Greg McCarthy, Marcel Mesulam & many others. We paid tribute to the late Keith Worsley & Jack Belliveau – two scientists who contributed major methodological advances to our field. We spent time reflecting on the first Paris meeting & the various significant events in the meeting since that time. Not sure how the audience felt, but we all enjoyed it immensely! Karl Zilles actually christened it the ‘Dinosaur Symposium‘ – somehow it got attributed to me at the Closing Ceremony – probably because I had broadcast it on social media. But it was not my invention.

I managed to take a couple of decent iPhone panoramas of Rome Monday afternoon & evening – one was taken from the Capitolini Museums [see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capitoline_Museums] – a museum complex that I really love & have visited on a previous visit to Rome. So many ancient treasures to see here!



Speaking of art & culture – OHBM Art Exhibit grows every year & the works are also very interesting & stimulating to look at. I always make sure that I get to it early – do not want to miss it as I get busier towards the end of the meeting. Here are a couple of the pieces that resonated with me personally the most.


Next to the art exhibit ppl could take time out for relax & also play the piano. Here is an OHBM attendee relaxing & providing a pleasant ambience for others…

On Tuesday I went to the Aperture Round Table – organized by JB Poline & Nikola Strikov. Good to see OHBM’s publication platform in forward motion & there were lots of good suggestions for future action. We were fortunate to be in the Choir Hall & everyone enjoyed having that harpsichord in the room after the end of the session. You can see the string vibrate here in the video when the key is struck.

Tuesday night was the NeuroImage Editorial Board dinner – always a chance to catch up with people you might have not seen for a while – like Sonja Kotz, in the image below [kindly taken by Til Ole Bergmann].


Another unique thing about the OHBM2019 meeting was the special postcard & stamp that had been prepared for the 25th anniversary. The postcard features the logo for the meeting – which is visible in the background when I am introducing Dani Bassett in an earlier image in this post. The Italian Post ppl were only too happy to give me an extra stamp on my postcard 🙂


But then it was time to get serious: time for the Program Committee meeting. We discussed what was good, what was bad & what we need to make the meeting better for next year. [Same thing to be said for the OHBM Council meeting. I have just rotated onto Council as OHBM Chair-Elect.] What was unfortunate this year was that the poster hall was very hot & airless – made unbearable by the heatwave we had in Rome during the OHBM meeting. I walked through the entire area a number of times – it seemed like those who were at the entrance & the middle were roasting & those who were right down the very end could at least get some cool breeze from the open doors leading to the car park. There was also not really enough space for people – an artifact of expecting 3,000 people & having over 4,000 show up… The video shows the bustle in one of the poster sessions:

We are going to have to make sure that we have some flexibility to expand our space so that the same thing does not happen in future. I have to say, I had flashbacks to previous OHBM meetings when I walked through that hot poster area – flashbacks to that first Paris meeting & to the meeting in Florence. The poster sessions are the scientific lifeblood of our meeting, so we need to really get this right… I gather that this was [justifiably] a hot issue [pardon the pun] at the OHBM General Assembly & Feedback Forum on Wednesday afternoon. I really wish I had been there to hear all of the discussion. Unfortunately, at that same time I was presenting in a Symposium on the ‘Neural basis of the human consciousness: Phenomena, paradigms & exploring techniques‘ at La Sapienza organized by Claudio Babiloni in conjunction with the Global Brain Symposium [with Alan Evans chairing]. So ironically, we were hotly debating consciousness while OHBM Members were debating the heat…

Here are a few pics from La Sapienza Symposium that I took – with Claudio Babiloni & Margitta Seeck presenting. I was also a presenter.

As we were having our panel discussion at the end – running a bit late – we had one of the policemen from the University Police come & tell us to finish up so that he could lock the building. We managed to get another 15 minutes of discussion before being dismissed by the long arm of the law… Thanks to one of Claudio’s students who took the picture below.


We then retired for a tour of La Sapienza campus, kindly given to us by Claudio Babiloni. La Sapienza [see https://www.uniroma1.it/it/pagina-strutturale/home] is a walled city housing many, many buildings & that is home to about 100,000 students! Here is a map of the institution – it is huge.


The front entrance is pretty impressive & monumental – reflecting the pared down architectural style that was popular during Mussolini’s rule. The image following is La Sapienza’s logo.

Another particularly monumental building is the one which houses the university’s rector.


In front of that building is a huge statue of Athena – the Goddess of Knowledge – in front of a pool of water. Apparently the students avoid Athena’s gaze, or indeed the reflection of her eyes in the water, when they are on their way to an exam. Superstition has it that if one looks directly into the eyes of the Goddess of Knowledge then one will surely fail the exam. So students walk past it with their heads down. At this time of year I did not see any students, but that would be something interesting to see for sure…

It started out as a bit of a joke when Claudio initially suggested we do the Symposium – I said OK if he was springing for dinner… So he did. He was a wonderful host – he took us out to dinner along with his students to a club that was associated with La Sapienza. Dinner was marvellous – lots of great seafood & fish washed down with a lovely Italian dry white wine. Always happy to sing for my supper if it is going to be like that!!! Thank you Claudio…

The closing ceremony of OHBM was interesting because this time Bernard Mazoyer, in his position as the past Chair of OHBM Council, had to do the obligatory look back at the current meeting. As fortunate coincidence would have it, he was the organizer of the very first meeting in Paris. Therefore he chose to reflect on looking for ‘seeds’ of the work of the here & now in the early days of the meeting. And indeed, there it all was, albeit in its infancy – work on white matter tractography, functional connectivity etc. among those those 440 abstracts. It was wonderful to see how our field had grown over the years – not only with respect to techniques, but relative to the science as well. My own abstract was a combo intracranial EEG & functional MRI study on face perception.

As is usual in the closing ceremony, we take a look forward to the next meeting. OHBM 2020 will be in Montreal & Jia-Hong Gao will be OHBM Council Chair & Alan Evans [the Glass Brain Recipient] will be the Co-Chair of the Local Organizing Committee. Alan Evans showed a video showing us what to expect in Montreal. -The video stars him & his fellow Co-Chair, Julien Doyon, in a wacky style. I would not have expected anything other from them…

Finally, the meeting was over & it was time to catch up with other half [who just arrived in Rome that afternoon] & friends for dinner at a very traditional & old trattoria, Da Gino al Parlamento, in the city center. This is a very famous one & has been around since the 1960s [see http://www.ristoranteparlamento.roma.it/]. The staff were very welcoming & the food was fabulous. Here is my pasta dish… but I also had a lovely rabbit dish with olives.


After dinner it was on to one of the best gelaterias in Rome – Gelateria Giolitti [see http://www.giolitti.it/en/]. This famous Roman landmark has been around since 1900! Coincidentally right now I happen to be reading a cool book [no pun intended] about the development of ices etc in history – starting in Florence in the 16th century when the well-to-do began to put ice in their wine to keep it cool in summer. This involved carting snow & ice down from the mountains & keeping it all year round in insulated pits. They also did this in Turkey in the early 16th century. Later the practice spread to Spain & France & even later ppl got more creative with frozen desserts when they discovered that adding salt to water altered its freezing point. Gelato & ice-cream were born! I am currently reading a book on the history of gelato & ice-cream. [See ‘Harvest of the Cold Months: The Social History of Ice and Ices‘ by Elizabeth David. It is available on amazon.com on Kindle] Apparently according to my ex-Roman colleague, Franco Pestilli, the Roman style of eating gelati includes having whipped cream placed between the two gelato flavors, as well as on the top. Had never had it like that before – the cream was really light & lovely. The place also had lots of scrumptious cakes too… Here are some pics of the place.

Walking around at Rome at night is lovely – the ancient buildings look extra special like this shot of the Pantheon below…


Back ‘home’ to the hotel very late, could barely keep my eyes open… was very tired after the OHBM meeting. Took about 5 seconds to go to sleep…

My memories of this 25th anniversary scientific meeting will be very special for many reasons, including the additional cultural milieu that we were immersed in for the week. Unfortunately, the next day it was arrivederci Roma, but ciao Alto Adige – that will be the subject of the next post or two [which will be shamelessly touristic].



The lead-up to OHBM2019 in Rome

Quite a nutty week it was in Paris just before OHBM2019. Lots of things to be done – talks, posters to be finished for the Organization for Human Brain Mapping [OHBM] meeting in Rome! Lots of ICMers were working hard prepping for this meeting… including the ICM’s cat. Most mornings over the last week he sat on the edge of the moat [with quite a precipitous drop] or just in the middle of foot traffic on the moat, soliciting pats from everyone…

As part of the work side of this week I took a trip out to Fontainebleau with my colleague, who was a member on a Jury for a PhD thesis defense at an institution called INSEAD. INSEAD brands itself as the ‘Business School of the World’ [see https://www.insead.edu/] & it offers graduate education in business & marketing. It is a very international place – faculty & students alike come from all parts of the world. It has campuses in Singapore & Abu Dhabi as well. The name INSEAD is an acronym that stands for Institut Européen d’Administration des Affaires [see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/INSEAD]. It was founded in 1957 by one of the first venture capitalists – Georges Doriot. Incredibly, for the first 10 years it had its classes in the Château de Fontainebleau, before moving to its new Fontainebleau campus in 1967! The cool part about INSEAD’s campus is that is it a stone’s throw from the famous Fontainebleau forest. We made sure that we got there earlier so we could take a stroll through some of it. Unusual forest for something that is so far inland – the soil is very sandy…


…seems like you are at the beach. The trees are amazing – lots of huge oaks with twin trunks as well as lots of fir trees. Very pretty.



Apparently there are a lot of deer, as well as wild boars running around in this forest. Thankfully we did not run into the latter. The thing that is the most striking though is the bird life – you hear so many different types of birds. We heard a cuckoo – with its very distinctive call. See if you can hear it in the video below:

It was a real treat to wander around for about an hour or so in the forest. Felt really weird doing that with my laptop slung over my shoulder & wearing a string of pearls. Here is another video showing the beautiful terrain & this time some different bird calls can be heard.

It was nice to come back to Fontainebleau once more – on a previous trip I had visited the chateau. Before we knew it though, it was time to head inside for the PhD thesis defense, which of course went well. After it was done it was time to get on the train back to Paris a colleague from INSEAD gave us a ride to the station in Fontainebleau. We could see a pretty nasty storm coming over as we were driving. Sure enough the heavens opened when we had to get out of the car at the station. Only took ~15 sec to get completely drenched from the hips down – I was valiantly clutching my umbrella in the wind. Actually I was glad to get under cover in the station – am not worried about the deluge as I am about the thunder & lightning. That afternoon’s storm was a doozy. A group of schoolchildren got hit by lightning while they were on a soccer field. Yikes.

As if the week was not busy enough, another thing to do before going to Rome was to check out a specialist cooking store in Paris. Why would I need to do that I hear you cry & also in this particular week? I was looking for some pasta cutters to make tortellini & agnolotti because mine at home have become blunt. So I was looking for some new sharp ones with the idea if I could not get them in Paris [Plan A], I would then look for them in Rome [Plan B]. The store is in the 1st arrondisement & is called MORA [https://mora.fr/].



So as can be seen in the image above, the place has been around for quite some time! Mission accomplished! I bought my new pasta making tools there. I also got a chain mail glove as I often will bone poultry or rabbit at home. The boning knife is incredibly sharp & I worry that one day that knife might slip & it will be a trip to the emergency room… So no more worrying about that now.

During this week at ICM Stuart Firestein from Columbia University was in Paris  – working with his colleagues at an institute called the CRI or the Center for Research in Interdisciplinarity [https://cri-paris.org/]. Very interesting initiative – founded by François Taddei & Ariel Lindner in 2005 to create a student/researcher centered open environment, with a goal to promote life-long learning. The building is also very impressive – took a huge renovation & also includes student apartments. The building has a radical design – library & admin are between two other buildings – one of which has labs & the other offices etc. Here are some pics of a renovated Art Deco staircase. Originally the staircase also had a service elevator going down the center, which was taken out. Now a linear light sculpture, spanning many floors, is in the elevator’s place.

The doors of the elevator were salvaged to create this piece of wall art that compliments the surroundings very nicely. What a delightful way to feature something from days gone by…


That night we went out to drinks & dinner – lovely to catch up with Stuart in Paris. We went to a bar where the shot below was taken. We were also accosted by a cat who insisted on sitting on all of our laps. When I told the bar’s owner that he had a really nice cat, he said it belonged to his neighbor & that it would always hang out in the bar soliciting pats from everyone.

We ended up going to a famous brasserie called Les Philosophes in the Marais [http://www.cafeine.com/philosophes]. The restaurant has been there since the 1920s & is in the old Jewish neighborhood of Paris. We had a great meal, washed down with a premier bottle of red. I also had the biggest steak tartare I have ever had. Finished every little bit of it…

The next day Stuart visited us at the ICM & checked out CENIR – the neuroimaging center with MRI/MEG/EEG – something I have described in a previous post.

What a busy, but enjoyable, week! This post started & ended with a cat. [Yes, I am missing my creatures.] The next post will come from Italy – after the madness that is OHBM2019 is over…


Some more images from the city of lights… outside & inside

For those of you reading this blog for the science, this post will probably not be your cup of tea. For those who are reading for the travel experiences, read on…

A couple of posts ago I featured some images of an intact Notre Dame. Well, here is the old lady now, cleaned up & wearing splints & bandages… still magnificent from the outside. Dread to think what she is like on the inside…TourMontparnasse_12_NotreDame

I took the above image from the Tour de Montparnasse the other weekend. Funny thing is that on so many visits to Paris, I have never managed to get to this landmark. The tower is quite an eyesore on the Paris landscape. That said, the views of the city from it are magnificent, so this time I made sure I stopped in there. Below are some other images taken from it – yes, yes, I know – shameless touristic images… …a nice view of the Grand Palais with the Petit Palais seen partly on the right side of the image below.


Invalides, Ste Sulpice & of course, the Tour Eiffel itself.



And not to mention plenty of views also of the intricate layout of Parisian streets & buildings…


Hard to not get carried away with the camera when confronted with a view like that… I need to get back there once more at night time. Speaking of night time, I have been experimenting with taking some pictures from my kitchen window of the Eiffel Tower at night. Quite a business to do – had to put a stool in front of the window & balance the camera with long lens on a pile of books, but worth the effort because at night on the hour, for five minutes the Tower shimmers with light. Beautiful to see. Hard to photograph.


My project now is to try to shoot a video of the shimmering. First attempts not bad, but not yet fit for public consumption. Need to do more work… stay tuned.

This last weekend I went to a light show/installation at Atelier des Lumières in the 11th arrondisement [see https://www.atelier-lumieres.com/ ]. There were 3 shows, with the main one being Van Gogh, La nuit étoilée [Starry night] a visual compilation by Gianfranco Iannuzzi, Renato Gatto & Massimiliano Siccardi with music selected by Luca Longobardi.



A number of Van Hogh’s images have been selected for this compilation. The images have clearly been sampled at ultra-high resolution & parts of them have also been extracted. The dynamic compilation overlays & mixes these images in a delightful visual kaleidoscope for the viewer. Images are projected onto the walls & floor of the building.


The ~3000 m2 building in which the Atelier des Lumières is today used to be a foundry in the 1800s. It started out as the La fonderie du Chemin-Vert in 1835 & was run by the three brothers of the Pierre family. It’s main clients were in the maritime & railway industries & at it’s peak the foundry had 60 employees. It closed in the 1900s & the space was ‘discovered’ in the 2000s & fashioned into a place where these light installations could take place on a regular basis.

Of the three light shows, one of the others Japon rêvé, images du monde flottant [Japan dreamed, images of a floating world] by L. Frigola, C. Péri, S. Carrubba, P. Ciucci from the Danny Rose Studio was the one that really impressed me. The images were colorful & very traditional & of course, larger than life.



This visual art installation/animation really made the images come to life. Here are a couple of brief videos that I shot of this visual animation/installation.

This last weekend I was also able to pay a visit to the Russian Orthodox Cathedral [http://www.cathedrale-orthodoxe.com/ ].  I have wanted to visit this church for a long time. It is in the 8th arrondisement – literally up the road from my favorite chocolatier in Paris – Chocolat Bonnat, of which I have enthused about in earlier posts. It is located in a very quiet, but stylish, neighborhood. Indeed, there are a few Russian shops surrounding it & the street that runs into it is named after Peter the Great [Rue Pierre Le Grand].



A decree by Tsar Alexander I on the 12th of February 1816 paved the way for the eventual establishment of an Orthodox place of worship by the diplomatic mission in Paris. It was designed to serve the wider Orthodox community, not just for worshippers of Russian origin. A considerable time passed before two adjacent parcels of land were bought in 1857-1858 & a design by 2 reputable architects was created [both were members of l’Académie des Beaux-arts of St Petersburg]. The first stone was laid in March 1859 & the building was finally finished in August 1861. The cathedral was dedicated to the memory of St. Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky [1221-1263] – a military hero for his victories over German and Swedish invaders among other things. He was canonized as a saint of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1547. [for more information on this intriguing man see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Nevsky]. I am only showing you some lovely pics from the outside of the building. Cameras are not permitted inside – but I can assure you that the interior is beautiful & well worth a visit.

On the way out, in the church grounds I was approached by a four-legged worshipper, wanting a pat…

Being in the 8th arr., the church is also a stone’s throw from the Arc de Triomphe & Avenue des Champs-Élysées. The Sunday I visited the church was also the 1st Sunday of the month – a day when the Champs-Élysées is usually closed to cars & is opened up to foot traffic. Weird seeing it like that. It is also pretty quiet too – no tooting of car horns etc.


That said, if you miss that sort of thing just head to the nearby Arc de Triomphe & the cobblestone roundabout that allows 12 avenues to meet. Every time I stand there I am amazed at the seemingly haphazard traffic pattern, yet I have never seen a bingle there… everyone seems to instinctively know that to do when going around it – probably doing defensive driving :).

The day was the hottest we have had so far: 33 deg C – summer temperatures to be sure. [Glad I am not going to the semi-finals of the French Open this year…] I retired to a nice little neighborhood park in the 8th arr. – a park I discovered on a previous visit as part of my chocolate odyssey. It is a small one & only the residents around there seem to use it. It is actually part of the grounds & gardens of a stately mansion & the gardens are open to the public. When I went there on Sunday afternoon there were still a lot of nice empty benches in the shade & families were just chillin’ out on the grass having their picnic Sunday lunches. Everyone was in a good mood, despite the heat & the breeze in the park was very pleasant.


I must say that I have re-discovered the pleasure of going to a park. I did it last year when I was here as well – to escape the heat of my non-airconditioned 6th floor apartment. I am so very fortunate to have a really beautiful & huge park near my apartment. It is delightful to sit outside & catch up on reading & also contemplate life…

As I was walking back to get the metro to go home, I came across the most amazing building – Art Nouveau gone wild – the Ceramic Hotel no less [check it out – looks like a nice place to stay… https://ceramic-paris-hotel.com/]. Built in 1904 – accordingly to the inscription in the stone. It is a creation in stone & tile & it channels Gaudi – for me at least. As the images below show, it is quite astounding.


So this was a little bit of tourism sandwiched in a trip that is very heavy on the work side. Always grateful for opportunities like this. It is part of the privilege of being a scientist.


Is my brain activity the same either side of the Atlantic? Seriously.

These last couple of weeks have been really busy – so much to do before the OHBM meeting in Rome! Trying to finish manuscripts, working on scientific posters with colleagues, as well as preparing a couple of talks for Rome – one for an OHBM Symposium I have co-organized & another for a Symposium at the Sapienza Università di Roma.

The other thing we have been trying to do is to finish up our study of ‘living phantoms’ – my colleague & I have already made recordings of each other’s brain electrical activity and brain blood flow on the other side of the Atlantic, in my lab & in the 3 T MRI-scanner in our Imaging Research Facility at Indiana University [IU]. So now we are doing the same thing on this side of the Atlantic. The image below shows me wearing our 256-sensor cap [to measure electrical brain activity] at IU. The contraption I am sitting in [image below] is a photogrammetry system in my lab – a device that has 11 cameras that capture a picture of my head & where the sensors are located on the head.


This allows a 3D map of the head surface with sensor positions to be made, which can then be subsequently merged with an anatomical MRI scan of my whole head, which ultimately looks something like this [image below], which was taken a few years earlier.


Perhaps you can see that characteristic nose of mine in that hairless & colorless image. If you look carefully you can probably recognize my facial features – if you already know me well. This, of course, is a real ethical issue for subject privacy in labs all over the world. In functional MRI studies it is usual to ‘strip’ away the tissues of the head & face to leave only the brain – which of course is hard to identify. In some of our brain electrical activity [electroencephalography or EEG] studies this is not possible. We need to use the surface of the head/face & also consider how well the different tissues of the head conduct electricity  [i.e. the spontaneous brain activity that our brain emits 24/7] for certain types of very specialized data analyses. [This is not the case in all EEG studies – many studies use only the EEG traces & 3D maps of the head are not needed.]

One can also measure the tiny magnetic fields that the brain emits using a method known as magnetoencephalography [MEG for short]. If one wants to really go over the top, one can do both MEG & EEG at the same time. This is what I did this week in CENIR at the ICM. First, the EEG sensors were put on my head, with extra leads to also measure eye movements & cardiac activity. We also need to make a map of the EEG sensors on my head – but here a slightly different method was used. A radio frequency transmitter at the back of the chair I am sitting on [that you cannot see] puts out a signal whose strength varies as a function of 3D distance from it [a polhemus system] . The experimenter uses a wand-like device [a radio frequency receiver] to touch the central location of each EEG sensor & measure the signal strength [& therefore the sensor’s position on the head]. The ‘Biggles’ googles I am wearing also have this position sensing in them, so that if I move my head even slightly the measurement system will compensate for that…


Once we had the sensors localized in 3D space, off came the goggles & it was time to ‘gel’ ’em up i.e. put in some conductive ‘goop’ to provide a good contact between my scalp & each sensor. This is always the fun part & takes quite a bit of time – the goop is usually cold & the experimenters have exfoliate the scalp as they go – yes indeed, one has a spa treatment for the face & head for this experiment… After a lot of checking that the contact between sensors & scalp is good, it is time to go into the shielded chamber, where the recording will take place. There I am fitted into the MEG helmet – a rigid device with sensors embedded in liquid helium. The thing weighs a lot & sits in a gantry that is adjustable. You have to make sure that your head is on contact with the MEG helmet [completely the opposite of being in an MRI scanner where you cannot touch the headcoil or the bore of the magnet].


Before we started all of this & changed some of my clothing [PJ pants], took off all of my jewelry & watch etc. We had done a quick check to see that I did not have any residual magnetization in my body [this includes clothing such as metal clips on bras etc & also sometimes dental fillings, for example]. If there is something magnetic on the person’s body – such as clothing etc. one would have to change completely into the PJ set that is supplied. Similarly, shoes also come off & little booties are issued. For dental fillings that are a problem the head can be ‘degaussed’ using a wand-like device – makes me think of ‘aura cleansing’ when I see it done. 🙂 This time I did not need to be degaussed even though I was expecting to have to do so because I had an MRI scan at IU as part of this study & made sure that it was done at least 6 weeks before having this MEG study…

The shielded room is a minimalist place to be sure – nice clean white interior with minimal clutter. There is no electrical equipment is inside the room – the idea is to keep all magnetic fields out – including that from our own planet. This is because the magnetic fields we measure from the brain are really tiny & are indeed many, many orders of magnitude smaller than the Earth’s magnetic field… The shielded room is also soundproof, once the door is sealed, so all communication with experimenters occurs via a MEG-compatible intercom system. In the control room, the experimenters can monitor what I am up to in there at all times – cameras monitor me, as well as all the sensors whose activity is displayed on monitors.



We were doing a ‘resting state’ study on me & also my colleague across 2 different continents – so we are being studied on either side of the Atlantic with multiple assessment modalities. We will look to see how we can integrate these datasets & also look for how consistent the profiles of activity are across the two measurements. Our plan is to share the data with colleagues in an open science framework, but we will have to do some gymnastics with data formatting first, so that it is in a new and desirable format [BIDS] that will allow more people to interact with it.


One of the tough things about doing a resting state study is ‘staying on task’ i.e. keeping one’s eyes open & fixating on a cross on the wall of the chamber, but letting one’s mind wander. We are doing 4 x 10 minute recordings of MEG & EEG [we also did that for our EEG only study at IU, & our functional MRI studies on both sides of the Atlantic].

What is more fascinating to me personally is how the flow of thoughts runs during this time – it is interesting to monitor this in oneself. The thing that struck me the most was that I think in a couple of languages [& can force myself to think in a third]. I had not really realized how much I actually switch between them… that was what I learned the most about myself from doing this study. It was also interesting to see what happens when you are in an environment under sensory deprivation. As I noted, the room was white, with a black fixation cross on the wall. What was cool was that during the last 10 minute run [i.e. after I had been trying to stare at that fixation cross for over half an hour] I started to get some interesting visual hallucinations. The seams of the door of the chamber started to become colored – these were vivid neon-like colors. A very cool effect. I was just beginning to explore this further when unfortunately to my great surprise time was up – we were already done…

What other things do I think might be important for studies such as this one? I come back to the title of this post: I was not being facetious when I posed the original question. How does our brain activity vary with geographical location? What about effects from the season of the year? [The light levels outside can be vastly different in addition to temperatures – in Indiana it was winter when we did the study, here in Paris it is late now spring.] What about the cultural milieu one is in? [Fortunately, since I have been over here before, the environment is completely familiar, so at least there is a minimal effect of novelty here, but there may still be a cultural effect.] What differences in activity are there for measurements taking sitting upright versus lying down? What differences in brain activity occur after a 3-4 month period of time has passed? How does one’s emotional state change the data? What about the amount of caffeine consumed? What about one’s habitual diet? Same applies to blood sugar levels at time of measurement etc… What if someone has a cold & a fever versus when they are well? These are all questions that we do not have clear answers yet. Many future studies will have to be performed to get at these. And this is not something we can tackle with our little investigation – we are just trying to get a rough idea of reproducibility across different methods in different labs at this stage & trying to integrate datasets for future work together.

But here is the one question I wonder about the most: how has my brain changed since the time [a year ago] that I was here last? Clearly I am a year older, however, I have also had a very rich cultural experience when I was here last that would have changed me forever also [hopefully for the better]…


Science, patrimony & hors d’oeuvres on the other side of the Atlantic…

It is a bit strange being in Paris again – back seeing colleagues, back in my old apartment… déjà vu to be sure, but things feel different – an indication that our minds are in constant forward motion, our brains are continually changing & that we are not the person we used to be. I arrived here Wednesday morning last week & in that relatively short period that ended last week moved back into my apartment, went back to the research institute, got my login privileges & ID back, had internet meetings with colleagues across the Atlantic & was in the institute working on manuscripts. Friday afternoon I had the privilege of being the guest of a colleague at a scientific function at the Collège de France. No wonder I felt tired at the end of last week…

The Collège de France is an amazing institution in so many ways – it was founded by Francis I for the specific purposes of providing teaching in disciplines that were not yet available at university level. In 1530, he appointed a set of ‘Lecteurs royaux’ who were charged with this task [for more background, see https://www.college-de-france.fr/site/en-college/index.htm]. I have copied the text below from their website which talks about its raison d’être: ‘Collège de France is a public higher education institution, which is unique in France and has no equivalent abroad. Since the 16th century, Collège de France has had a two-fold mission: to be a forum for cutting-edge research and teaching. Collège de France is committed to fundamental research, in partnership with the CNRS, INSERM and several other major institutions, but what differentiates it is that it teaches “knowledge in the making in every field of literature, science and the arts“.’

The French citizen benefits tremendously from this institution in that it has a wealth of free-public lectures in a wonderful auditorium/building – lectures that not only are given by high-profile French researchers/academics, but also by internationally renowned foreign scientists also. For example, this month György Buzsáki from New York University [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gy%C3%B6rgy_Buzs%C3%A1ki] was giving a set of lectures – I just missed him unfortunately. Indeed, coupled with the freely available podcasts on French Public Radio, the average French citizen has access to a wonderful knowledge base of the sciences, the arts & philosophy. On the other hand, prominent French researchers/academics who are doing truly ground-breaking work enjoy patronage from this institution – with professorial appointments in 1 and 5-year terms being available across 8 different disciplines or ‘institutes’. [For example, in our discipline, NeuroSpin Director, Stan Dehaene has a 5 year appointment as a Professor – & rightly so! It was nice to chat to him at the Friday event – albeit briefly.] The Collège also has a collection of rare manuscripts & books that are amazing research tools for professors/researchers attached to Collège de France, as well as potentially being available to specialist researchers from outside.

The building of the Collège de France is, as one would expect is old & beautiful in the classic French sense, as some of these images below indicate:


Last Friday afternoon, the Fondation Fyssen had a 40th anniversary function at the Collège de France, where a set of academic ‘fireside chats’ with scientists had been organized. This Foundation is a private entity, with an endowment that facilitates & funds researchers – particularly post-doctoral fellows.


The MC for the event was Mathieu Vidard, a science journalist who has quite a following for his weekday program on French Public Radio. He very capably wended his way through the disciplines, being able to draw out something interesting from each of the researchers who were discussing their findings with him. Very impressive – he was at it for about 4 hours or so… Here is his picture & link on France Inter – the app for French Public Radio.


There was something for everyone on Friday afternoon – from archaeology & anthropology, animal behavior to human neuroscience, as the program below indicates:

As seen in the images above, there was pomp & ceremony with an initial opening address by the President of the Collège de France, Alain Prochiantz, followed by an address by Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, an internationally renowned pediatric neuroscience researcher [who herself does really cool MRI-based work on how the infant brain develops], who is currently the Vice-President of the scientific teaching part of the Fondation Fyssen.

What was the coolest part of the afternoon for me? Probably the archaeology discussion.


The above image shows Mathieu Vidard chatting with Dominique Grimaud Hervé, a paleo-anthropologist at the National Museum of Natural History, & Marie Soressi, an archaeologist at the University of Leiden. They discussed subjects such as endocasts across different hominins [Hervé] & the potential exchange of artifacts & culture between Neanderthals & Homo Sapiens [Soressi]. What really blew my mind was the latter topic: 200K years ago the extraction of birch resin occurred – being the 1st synthetic material ever made! Then, 50K years ago a fire-starter – MnO2 [manganese dioxide] was first used! But the thing that was most astonishing to me was the fact that the tool that is used to smooth leather today [in artisanal settings] comes to us courtesy of the Neanderthal culture! The idea of ‘cultural exchange’ between hominins has been advanced as Homo Sapiens & their Neanderthal cousins lived in certain common geographic regions & it is in these regions that early humans began to use these leather smoothing tools…

Overall, the afternoon was intellectually very stimulating, but very draining for me – since I had to concentrate extremely hard because when the scientists got excited about their work they spoke very fast & my French comprehension is not yet that good…

After the scientific program was completed everyone retired to the Collège de Bernardins, just up the road in the Latin Quarter, for a cocktail reception. This is an amazing building whose construction began in 1248 & its purpose was to provide a venue for the study of theology, philosophy & literature. It has had a checkered history, but in 2011 was repurchased by the Diocese of Paris from the City of Paris, with the idea of creating a cultural project devoted to the service of ‘mankind and his future’. In 2008 it opened to the public for the very first time & guided tours are available. Our reception was in the Large Nave – an amazing 70 meter long X 14 meter wide structure – which these days hosts receptions, concerts & exhibitions. Some images of this magnificent building appear below:


The statue of Christ in the image above left, dates back from the 14th century…

Overall, we spent a delightful evening in the Collège de Bernardins – the champagne flowed & the hors d’oeuvres were absolutely delightful. I got back to my apartment that night & slept like a baby.  What a lovely cure for jet-lag!

Back on the regular work side, it was funny walking back into the ICM – lots of familiar faces – felt like I had never left it in some ways…

Back in the lab with Nathalie George & Mariana Babo Rebelo at the ICM, Salpetriere in Paris.

When I walked back into the ICM the other day, I ran into a friend/colleague who had left the institute recently – what good fortune it was that we were both in the same place at the same time. What he did not mention to me is that he is now [in]famous – in an advertising sense! Another friend noted that she was standing at one of the main stations in London waiting to get a train to Paris. She did a double take because she thought she saw his face splashed across all of the TV monitors in the station… The ads were cycling through & sure enough – it was definitely him when she looked again. He is advertised as being a frenchman called Julien [he is Italian & has a completely different name]. The ad is for a bank whose pitch is that it’s customers live & work across Europe. I now call him ‘Julien’ when I see him! Mmm, I wonder what the bank is going to do with their advertising strategies with Brexit looming large…

Thinking about Paris…

… and Notre Dame, which will never be the same. I have thought a lot about it & the good fortune I have had on past trips to France to see this amazing building on multiple occasions. This post is devoted to sharing some recent images of this magnificent structure while it was still intact, with a lot of sadness on my part. I will be heading back there in a couple of days & in some ways dread the idea of going to the ÃŽle de la Cité & looking at what is left of this piece of history.


The above image was taken about a year ago from the 25th floor of the Zamansky Tower at Université Pierre et Marie Curie [UPMC], which is now part of Université Sorbonne. Seeing the building from this height really shows off the scale & perspective of this magnificent structure. The image below is taken from the same view, but shows the huge scale of Notre Dame better relative to the surrounding architecture. B&W_UPMC_Zamansky_02

One thinks about all of the environmental challenges this building has experienced over the centuries – the regular flooding of the Seine over the years, for instance. The last big flood was in winter 2018 – here are a couple of images of the extensive flooding on the Seine – quite a remarkable sight. No river traffic possible – no vessel could actually fit under any of the bridges because the water level was so high. Nor could anyone actually get to the boats that were moored on the quays by the river, because the walkways &  quays themselves were all under water as well…



It actually took a couple of months before the level of the river looked like anything normal.



Here is a shot a couple of months later.

I have always enjoyed the many architectural features of Notre Dame – features that are often best appreciated from behind the zoom lens of a camera…

Every time I go & look at it I notice something that I have not seen previously.

I share with you one more shot of Notre Dame & its spire on a beautiful summer evening that was spent on a barge on the Seine last summer…


The next pics of Notre Dame you will see on this blog will be in its current state, after the devastating fire…

Looking ahead to the 25th anniversary human brain mapping meeting in Rome in June 2019

This is a slightly different post from my other ones – a post that I have written with lots of input from others. On the OHBM Program Committee we are excited to be able to plan the meeting in Rome this June. As part of those activities, I volunteered to write a ‘blurb’ that we could disseminate in the neuroimaging & neuroscience fields to celebrate & acknowledge the history of our discipline. I am sharing this material here so that we can maximize exposure about this exciting milestone for our field! I started out doing this with input from Bernard Mazoyer [U of Bordeaux/ Institut des maladies neurodégénératives] – who is also on the OHBM Program Committee right now. I quickly found that two heads are better than one: I could not remember all the details about that 1st Human Brain Mapping Conference in Paris in 1995. Indeed, who better to ask than Bernard – who was the organizer of that 1st meeting? So to fill in all the details of the lead up & birth of the idea of  that meeting, I also sought input from Alan Evans [McGill U/Montreal Neurological Institute], Peter Fox [U of Texas Health Sciences Center San Antonio/Research Imaging Institute] & Peter Bandettini [National Institute of Mental Health/Section on Functional Imaging Methods]. I have to say that I enjoyed our email exchanges between us all & I look forward to catching up with them all in Rome in June. So before I share the ‘blurb’ with you, here is a preview of the type of material that might be appear in Rome. I thought I would get this in here so that you can have a laugh at my expense before Alan Evans, who also has this image, does so… :)))

Photo of portable PET detector array – courtesy of Dr Julie Brefczynski-Lewis at West Virginia University [Morgantown].


25 years of scientific meetings in neuroimaging being celebrated by The Organization for Human Brain Mapping [OHBM] in 2019!

In the late 1980’s, neuroimagers were a ragged band of multi-disciplinary researchers with no real home. In search of their scientific interests, they attended meetings covering radiology, nuclear medicine, neurophysiology, engineering, image processing and computer science. Starting in 1992, a small group of internationally well-known neuroimagers had attended a series of 8 annual BrainMap Workshops in San Antonio devoted to promoting the development of standard space as an analysis and reporting standard, with discussions also related to development of open-access neuroimaging archives. These meetings were organized by Peter Fox [USA] and funded by NIH [USA] R13 awards. After one such meeting in 1994, the crying need for a home of their own was the central issue discussed around a table of 25 scientists who became the driving force behind what would become OHBM. At the meeting, Dr. Bernard Mazoyer [France] volunteered to host a first launch of such an international conference. Mazoyer and colleagues Per Roland [Sweden] and Rudiger Seitz [Germany] hosted the meeting in Paris, France in June 1995. Incredibly 820 attendees came to the first meeting – greatly exceeding the organizers’ expectations! The second meeting was held in Boston, USA and organized by Jack Belliveau and Bruce Rosen. The rest is history.

The overwhelming success of the Paris meeting prompted calls for the creation of a new Society for neuroimagers. Opinion was divided on this topic, with some influential senior figures in the movement arguing strongly that this would be unnecessary and compete with established Societies. Quite a contentious debate ensued. In retrospect, it is hard to believe that such an esoteric and minor issue generated such strong sentiment. Indeed, the following year, at the 2nd Human Brain Mapping Conference in Boston, the issue was hotly debated at a ‘Town Hall’ meeting of the 1000-1500 attendees. Alan Evans [Canada] as a moderator, actually donned a combat helmet for the occasion! The meeting’s outcome was that an ‘Organization’ would be established to run annual meetings, but it would not be deemed a ‘Society’. OHBM officially became an Organization in 1997 with ratified by-laws and the potential to elect office bearers [OHBM Council, OHBM Program Committee]. Indeed, many of the first OHBM Council Chairs were scientists who had participated in the original BrainMap Workshops. Over the past 25 years, the OHBM has taken on multiple new responsibilities, effectively functioning as a Society while retaining its original name. Therefore, it finally became a Society in 2018 – ratified by the OHBM membership at the annual meeting in Singapore – allowing the official sanctioning of year-round activities of ‘Chapters’ in different international communities.

In the mid-1990s, the neuroimaging zeitgeist was such that Positron Emission Tomography [PET] was an established neuroimaging modality, with activation studies of cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism being performed in both humans and animals. The requirement of a nearby cyclotron meant that PET was largely confined to the largest institutions with clinical and/or research imaging centers. The 1995 Paris neuroimaging meeting was actually a satellite meeting for the Brain PET meeting in Cologne. At the time, only a few groups were performing functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI] studies. Analysis software was vestigial – the first generation of Statistical Parametric Mapping [SPM] software for PET data analysis was available – with the first methods papers being published by Karl Friston in 1990/1991 [see https://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm/doc/history.html]. Software packages for fMRI were being developed e.g. Analysis of Functional Images [AFNI] by Bob Cox at the Medical College of Wisconsin began in 1994 [see https://afni.nimh.nih.gov/afni_history], and SPM for fMRI came about from a number of attempts at implementing data analysis from Friston’s group in 1995. Magnetoencephalography [MEG] and electroencephalography [EEG] were already established neurophysiological methods in the mid-1990s, with their own specialized smaller scientific meetings. High-density MEG/EEG recordings were still not that common. Most of the book of 404 abstracts for the Paris meeting was devoted to brain activation studies, with 27% devoted to fMRI methods, 6% to the nature of the BOLD response, and 9% to MEG-EEG.

The OHBM has been a hub for the neuroimaging community, gradually incorporating additional MRI-based methods such as quantification of grey matter and white matter, formulation of anatomical atlases. Efforts to encourage the involvement of more basic and clinical researchers performing MEG and EEG studies are also being made. Right from the outset, OHBM has recognized the importance of having an educational program [initially organized by Peter Bandettini from 1998-2000], with weekend education sessions being added as early as 1998, and morning education sessions commencing in 2000 for OHBM in San Antonio. In 2000, Peter Fox, obtained a 5-year NIH R13 grant whose $25,000/year proceeds were devoted to 25 travel awards for OHBM trainees, based on abstracts with the highest peer-reviews. This grant was extremely helpful in kickstarting engagement from new scientists just starting out in functional neuroimaging and launched the OHBM Trainee Travel Award Program. In 2005, Peter Fox succeeded in obtaining a renewal for this 5-year grant with an increased budget of $50,000/year. After 10 years of NIH travel awards to the tune of $750,000 and increasing attendances at OHBM meetings, OHBM had enough financial reserve to continue the travel award program and the NIH-grant was allowed to lapse. Additionally, the neuroimaging journals NeuroImage and Human Brain Mapping were spawned for this community. NeuroImage was an existing Elsevier journal that was transformed to be a forum for [mainly human] PET and fMRI studies by Editors Art Toga, Richard Frackowiak, and John Mazziotta [1995], whereas Human Brain Mapping was started de novo by Peter Fox for Wiley [1993]. Both Human Brain Mapping and NeuroImage were the source of OHBM abstract books for the first few years. Additional journals for neuroimaging and related disciplines have been added since those times e.g. Brain Connectivity [Christopher Pawela & Bharat Biswal] and Brain Structure and Function [Laszlo Zaborszky & Karl Zilles]. All of these senior scientists have been active in the OHBM community. Indeed, Editors for all of these journals continue to come largely from the OHBM community. In addition to journal-based activity, early efforts to standardize data formats and data sharing were occurring at the time. For example, in the early ‘90s, workshops for the International Consortium on Brain Mapping [beginning in 1992 and co-ordinated by John Mazziotta] and for the European Computerized Human Brain Database [beginning in 1994 and co-ordinated by Per Roland] were run in addition to the San Antonio BrainMap Workshops.

A set of awards recognize the achievements of OHBM Members. An award devoted to recognizing excellence in early career neuroimagers began as the Wiley Young Investigator Award [first awarded to Karl Friston in 1996]. In 2016, it became the OHBM Early Career Investigator Award. Other OHBM awards include the Education in Neuroimaging Award [first awarded to JB Poline in 2013], the Replication Award [first awarded to Wouter Boekel in 2017]. In 2014 OHBM awarded the Glass Brain Award to Karl Zilles – created to recognize the lifetime achievements of scientists in the field of human neuroimaging. From 2005, OHBM has also been very fortunate to have the Editors-in-Chief of the journals Human Brain Mapping and NeuroImage also announce their Editor’s Choice Award for the best paper in their respective journals at the opening ceremony of each OHBM meeting.

OHBM is a Society that is known to be inclusive and to change with the times. Its Council and Scientific Program Committee have existed from the early years [1997]. In response to current issues, committees such as a Diversity & Gender Committee, a Communications Committee, and the OHBM Publishing Initiatives Committee, among others, have been more recently constituted. The Communication committee has its hands full improving the OHBM website – providing ‘on demand’ education program [2014] consisting of resources such as videoed lectures from previous meetings and educational materials, running a blog [2015], among other things. OHBM also is an inclusive Society as indicated by its Code of Conduct Statement [see https://www.humanbrainmapping.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3912]. Three special interest groups [SIGs] devoted to Students & Post-docs, Open Science and Brain-Art are also now part of OHBM. As OHBM has grown, a professional secretariat soon become necessary, which has helped to preserve institutional knowledge and to increase professionalism. Initially, in the early 2000s Lori Anderson and her team [from a US-based company called L&L] fulfilled that role. Nowadays these greatly expanded functions are fulfilled by the OHBM Executive Office, based in Minneapolis, USA.

Over the years the OHBM Annual Scientific Meeting has alternated between the European, Asian and North American continents, with occasional detours to places such as Australia. Attendee numbers have steadily grown over the years – first surpassing 3000 in 2005 when the meeting was held in Florence, Italy. Indeed, the 25th anniversary of scientific neuroimaging meeting in Rome, Italy promises to be a bumper year – with over 3700 abstract submissions and attendee numbers expected to be around 4000! This year’s meeting will be an exciting one – not only for the new science being presented, but also for the nostalgic look back at the previous 25 years of meetings being prepared by members of OHBMs Scientific Advisory Board – individuals who have been part of the history of OHBM.

We look forward to seeing you at OHBM in Rome on June 9-13 [see https://www.humanbrainmapping.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=3882&activateFull=true] !

Aina Puce & Bernard Mazoyer,
OHBM Program Committee